Diminishing Dyslexia Through Auditory Integration Training
The International Dyslexia Association defines dyslexia as “a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede the growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.” (https://dyslexiaida.org/definition-of-dyslexia/ )
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Cheri Moore has been helping children and adults improve the brain’s ability to respond to intervention while minimizing negative behavioral responses.
“Cheri Moore is a huge advocate for students with processing challenges. She has an intense desire to bring improvements to students and is tireless in seeking out the information and therapies to bring results. She demonstrates great caring and generosity in seeking solutions for students.”
Margaret McLewin, Homeschool Plus Director, Piano & Voice Teacher
Auditory Difficulties Associated With Dyslexia
Using magnetoencephalographic imaging (MRI Scans): Researchers Blau V., Atteveldt, N., Ekkebus, M., Goebel, R., Blomert, L. (2009) assessed auditory processing and visual processing skills using MRI scans in participants diagnosed with dyslexia, comparing them to a norm group, and found deficits in both the auditory processing system and visual processing system.
Blau, et. al. (2009) found decreased neural activity in the brain’s hetermodal superior temporal sulcus and gyrus when presented with “congruent sounds” (recognized sound-letter combinations) and “incongruent sounds (
Van Atteveldt, N., Formisano, E., Goebel, R., Blomert, L. (2004) found through MRI scans that reading and spelling activate parts of the brain associated with integrating auditory and visual processing skills.
MRI scans of the auditory cortex provided evidence that struggling readers suffer from auditory processing deficits during “brief and rapidly successive inputs” of speech, (listening to self and others) causing unclear phonetic pronunciation (Nagarajan, Mahncke, Salz, Tallal, Roberts & Merzenich, 1999).
Evidence of Visual Processing Difficulties Found In Those Diagnosed With Dyslexia
Raghuram, A., et.al. (2018) found a significantly higher percentage (79%) of visual processing deficits (vergence, accommodation, ocular motor tracking) in 29 children diagnosed with dyslexia when compared to 33% of 33 children without a diagnosis (Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30027208).
(Raghuram, A., Gowrisankaran, S., Swanson, E., Zurakowski, D., Hunter, D., Waber, D., (
Over a third of 121 students (41) with 20/20 vision and receiving special education services for reading difficulties were found to have reduced ability to use both eyes together to keep print single and clear (Retrieved from https://uwaterloo.ca/optometry-vision-science/news/kids-reading-problems-mayhave-abnormal-binocular-vision ).
Christain, L., Hrynchak, P., Irving, E., Nandakumar, K. (Feb. 2018). Kids with reading problems may
have abnormal binocular vision. Journal of Optometry. Retrieved from https://uwaterloo.ca/optometry-visionscience/news/kids-reading-problems-may-have-abnormal-binocular-vision
In a study completed by Grisham (1986), 50% of children with reading disabilities experienced difficulties with Visual Processing Dysfunctions (VPD) when compared to students without reading difficulties; the VPD most often found were difficulties using both eyes together to look at a target; keeping the object/letter clear and single; and accommodation, the ability to focus quickly on objects of various depth perception distances.
Dyslexia Is Not Outgrown
According to a national survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2013), 4.9 million children in the U.S., ages 3-17, have a learning disability. The most common learning disability is dyslexia, which is estimated to affect five to ten percent of children attending school (Handler, Fierson, 2011; Cardon, et al., 1994).
An MRI study found that dyslexia is not outgrown; adults who struggled to read as children still struggled as adults (Ahissar, Protopapas, Reid & Merzenich, 2000).
Cheri Moore's Findings Resulted in Improved Responses to AIT and Vision Therapy
Cheri Moore's desire to improve clients' emotional response during auditory integration training resulted in the discovery of a high rate of co-existing visual processing difficulties with sound intolerance, with or without a hearing loss. After some clients experienced increased visual processing difficulties during AIT, like chronic double vision, Cheri Moore collaborated with optometrists specializing in vision therapy to track client's progress. Auditory-visual protocols have resulted in improved responses to auditory integration training and vision therapy.
FDA Statement On AIT
"Auditory Integration Training remediates impairments in auditory discrimination (sound sensitivity and auditory distortion) associated with Autism, Learning Disabilities, and related disorders - ADD, ADHD, CAPD (Central Auditory Processing Deficits), SPD (Sensory Processing Disorder), Dyslexia."
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